Veterinary Use Only
Xylakor (Xylazine HCI) Injection is a clear, colourless solution for intravenous or intramuscular administration supplied in 50 mL multiple-dose vials as a sterile solution.
Xylazine HCI equivalent to 100 mg/mL xylazine base.
Preservatives: 0.9 mg/mL methylparaben and 0.1 mg/mL propylparaben.
Xylazine HCI is pharmacologically classified as a non-narcotic sedative with strong analgesic and hypnotic properties. Xylazine HCI produces muscle relaxation by inhibiting the intraneural transmission of impulse in the central nervous system. The drug produces sedation primarily through activation of alphaadrenergic receptors in the locus coeruleus of the brain to prevent the release of norepinephrine and can be reversed with an alpha 2 adrenergic antagonist such as yohimbine. 5Deep sedation develops in the animal within 10 to 15 minutes after intramuscular injection and within 3 to 5 minutes following intravenous administration. Deep sedation lasts 15 to 20 minutes, while a sleep-like state, the depth of which is dose-dependent, is usually maintained for 1 to 2 hours following intramuscular administration of the drug at the recommended dosage. Recovery is complete within 30-40 minutes following intravenous injection. In either case, the analgesia lasts from 15-30 minutes. In animals under the influence of Xylazine HCI, the respiratory and pulse rates are reduced as in a natural sleep. The intramuscular injection of Xylakor (Xylazine HCI) produces only negligible effects on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. However, intravenous administration produces significant reductions in tidal volume and respiratory rate in the horse and pony although arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide levels are not appreciably altered. Xylakor (Xylazine HCI) may produce bradycardia which is severe enough to require treatment with an anticholinergic agent (atropine, glycopyrrolate) on rare occasions. Sinoatrial arrest, first, second and third degree A-V blocks and premature ventricular contractions have been observed. Arrhythmias may persist for up to three hours. The cardiovascular system of the horse sedated with Xylazine HCI may not respond to stimulation (stress, hemorrhage) with an increased heart and cardiac output like a “normal horse”. 6 Xylazine HCI has no effect on blood clotting time or other hematologic parameters.
Horses- Xylakor (xylazine HCI) injection should be used when it is desirable to produce a state of sedation accompanied by a shorter period of analgesia. It has been successfully used when conducting various diagnostic, orthopedic and dental procedures and for minor surgical procedures of short duration. It may also be used as a preanesthetic to local or general anesthesia.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION:
Horses- For intravenous or intramuscular administration.
SEDATION AND ANALGESIA – The recommended dosage for intravenous administration is 0.5 mL/45 kg body weight (equivalent to 1.1 mg/kg or 0.5 mg/lb). The recommended dosage for intramuscular administration is 1.0 mL/45 kg body weight (equivalent to 2.2 mg/kg or 1.0 mg/lb).
Following the administration of Xylakor (Xylazine HCI) Injection, the animal should be allowed to rest quietly until the full effect has been reached. These dosages produce a state of sedation which is usually maintained for 1 to 2 hours and analgesia which lasts for 15 to 30 minutes.
PREANESTHETIC TO LOCAL ANESTHESIA– At the recommended dosage rates, Xylakor (Xylazine HCI) Injection may be used in conjunction with local anesthetics, such as procaine and lidocaine.
PREANESTHETIC TO GENERAL ANESTHESIA- At the recommended dosage rates, Xylakor (Xylazine HCI) Injection produces an additive effect to central nervous system depressants, such as sodium pentobarbital, sodium thiopental and sodium thiamylal. Accordingly, the dosage of such compounds should be reduced and administered to the desired effect. Generally, 1/3 to 1/2 of the calculated dosage of barbiturates will be needed to produce a surgical plane of anesthesia.
Postanesthetic or emergence excitement has not been observed in animals preanesthetized with Xylazine HCI injection.
Xylakor (Xylazine HCI) Injection has been successfully used as a preanesthetic agent with a dose range of 0.3 to 0.6 mg/kg prior to sodium pentobarbital, sodium thiopental, sodium thiamylal, nitrous oxide, ether, halothane, glyceryl guaiacolate or methoxyflurane anesthesia. Xylakor can be used at full intravenous sedative dose (1.0 to 1.1 mg/kg) before ketamine HCI (Ketalean) induction.